Part 3: Snowboard Wax

In this three-part series I covered snowboard base dynamics to help prepare your equipment and get a better understanding of how conditions impact riding. In Part One I covered the physics effecting movement on the snow. In Part Two, I covered the snowboard base material, and base structure theory. In this last installment I will cover the role of wax, wax structure, and health and risks.

Part 3: Snowboard Wax

Snowboard Wax

In a simple explanation wax is used between the base and the snow to reduce friction. There are a few different types of friction we try to overcome using wax. When wax is applied to a snowboard base, it is melted and then ironed into a thin layer. When cool, the excess is scraped away and then even more excess is removed from the base with a stiff brush. One can also ‘crayon’ the wax on to the base and use a cork to  A physical energy that can push or pull on something. Your weight is the force that you push on the earth with, when there are no other accelerations." class="glossaryLink " target="_blank">force the wax in to the pores.


There are many types of frictional forces in physics, but we deal primarily with two forces of friction [kinetic and static] in snowboarding; dry, wet, and sometimes electrostatic.

  • Dry friction occurs when the melt-water lubrication is absent or insufficient; this is the case at low temperatures or at low sliding speeds when dry snow granules come in contact with the ski base. Essentially you want wax slightly harder than the snow particles. If a wax is too soft the snow crystal will penetrate into the wax causing a grippy base. However, if the wax is too hard the is a multiplicative factor in some term." class="glossaryLink " target="_blank">coefficient of friction will be higher and the base will be less slippery.[1]Kuzmin, Leonid (2010). Interfacial kinetic ski friction (Doctoral). Mid Sweden University, Retrieved December 2, 2014 from
  • Wet friction occurs with a high moisture content snow creating suction between base and snow. A fluorocarbon additive is sometimes used to reduce the wet friction. However, it’s important to not use too much fluorocarbon as it will increase the dry friction and reduce glide.
  • Electrostatic friction is static electricity generated when a base runs on snow creating an electrostatic attraction between the board and snow. Graphite is commonly introduced into the base to reduce static electric.
Purl wax
Purl wax

The basics of wax

I have tried numerous hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon." class="glossaryLink " target="_blank">hydrocarbon waxes out there, most all of them are similar. When I worked as a ski tech at Keystone Resort many years ago, the wax formula was very similar to what it is now. Basically companies were trying to manipulate a paraffin wax hardness to different temperatures and conditions of the snow. Back then, the color of the wax was an easy way to tell the wax hardness. For warmer conditions a wax in the red spectrum was used, and for colder conditions a blue spectrum color was used. This evolved in to virtually every color in between, and the black art of mixing waxes to achieve specific hardnesses for specific conditions was born. Colored waxes today are nothing more than a marketing gimmick to tint the wax, similar to adding a crayon to the mix to offer some mystique.[2]Masia, Seth. (2012) History of Ski Wax, Retrieved November 29, 2014, from[3]Kuzmin, Leonid (2006). Investigation of the most essential factors influencing ski glide (Licentiate). Luleå University of Technology

There are basically three types of wax; hydrocarbon waxes, fluorinated hydrocarbon waxes, and fluorocarbon overlays.

  • Hydrocarbon waxes are simple paraffin waxes that have varying amounts of oils and synthetic hardeners in them which determine their hardness and what conditions they might be best suited for.
  • Fluorocarbon waxes do not mix with hydrocarbon waxes. Fluorinated hydrocarbons are a hybrid link between them. A fluorinated hydrocarbon is not simply a block of wax containing a mix of a hydrocarbon and a fluorocarbon wax. The combination is actually at the molecular level.[4]Moldestad, D. A., (1999). Some aspects of ski base sliding and ski base structure, PhD thesis, Norwegian University of Science and Technology.[5]Lehtovaara, A., (1989). (or dynamic) – Occurs when two objects are moving relative to each other and rub together." class="glossaryLink " target="_blank">Kinetic friction between ski and snow, PhD thesis, Tampere University of Technology, Finnland.
  • Fluorocarbon overlays are the most expensive sprays, powders, and blocks. These products do not penetrate the base the way hydrocarbon waxes do and are also more challenging to work with.

Hydrocarbon wax

This is the most basic of waxes. These waxes are primarily made up of three types of hydrocarbons: paraffin, microcrystalline, and synthetic waxes that are combined together in various proportions. Paraffins are soft, candle-like waxes, that have low coefficients of friction allowing the board to glide easily over the snow crystals. Microcrystalline waxes are a branched type of hydrocarbon that are more durable than paraffins and do not wear off as fast. Synthetic waxes are slightly branched hydrocarbons that also make the wax stronger. All waxes use a hydrocarbon base to which various additives are incorporated.[6]Coupe, Richard (2008). An Investigation Comparing the Efficacy of Different Lubricants for Skis on Artificial Snow. The ACES Journal of Undergraduate Research, Sheffield Hallam University.[7]Giesbrecht, Jan Lukas (2010). Polymers on snow: Towards skiing faster (Doctoral). Swiss Federal Institute of Technology

Fluorocarbon wax

It was Terry Hertel that developed and introduced a fluorocarbon wax to the ski industry in the late 1980’s. Hertel owns several patents on glide wax,[8]Hertel, Terry (1992) US Patent US 5114482A although it’s not as much of a secret as one would imagine, a spectroscopy and CHN analysis does reveal a breakdown of the contents. Elemental analysis can be qualitative (determining what elements are present), and it can be quantitative (determining how much of each are present). While toxicity levels are low, many of the waxes on the market today contain them. Fluorine is the most electronegative of all the elements. When substituted for one or more hydrogen atoms in a hydrocarbon wax, the new fluorocarbon wax becomes incredibly hydrophobic, which is why it is great as a snowboard wax. Usually some degree of fluorocarbon or surfactant is in the common wax ingredient. Hence began the ‘all-temperature’ waxes, basically a wax that would perform from 5°F to roughly 50°F. Although, that is subjective to actual snow snow-structure, age of the snow, and water content in the snow. Temperature, while a main factor, is not the only factor.[9]Pihkala, P.; Spring, E., (1986). Determination of the contact area between ski and snow using a simple thermal conductivity meter, Report Series in Geophysics, University of Helsinki: Helsinki.

Which wax to use

A variety of hydrocarbon snowboard waxes
A variety of hydrocarbon snowboard waxes

Sometimes you have to choose your own toppings on your pizza. I try to use a natural wax when the conditions permit. For the most part, I use Purl wax, depending on the conditions. I also use Hertel Hotsauce wax even though I have my concerns knowing what is actually in the makeup of the wax. Generally wax gives you more control in to turns, and makes glide easier. Speed however, is less of a concern to me in the backcountry. The coefficient difference between an eco-friendly and a toxic fluorocarbon wax is very, very minimal. The durability is virtually the same between the two.

With that said, there is really no reason any recreational user needs to resort to a wax containing fluorocarbon or other added toxins when the technology and manufacturers are starting to step up to the environmental impacts of various waxes. Whichever wax you choose, be vigilant to heat the wax iron just enough the drip the wax. DO NOT allow the wax to smoke, or breath in the fumes! Preheat the iron for awhile to get the lower setting up to a suitable temp. Never apply the iron directly on to the PE) is a Ultra High Molecular Weight (UHMW) polyethylene" class="glossaryLink " target="_blank">polyethylene base without wax as this can damage the base pores. Use fiberlene between the base and the iron if necessary.

I believe structure is more important than wax type, unless you are racing to achieve a difference of seconds in speed.  Matching a finer structure on both the base and the wax during cold temps, and a more course structure during warmer temps is more of a concern. Copper and brass brushes are typically used prior to waxing to prep the surface. Stiff metal and / or steel brushes should not be used and are an obsolete technique. The wax structure brush you choose will make a big difference in performance. The all-purpose nylon brushes achieve the majority of structures. These bristles are course however, and will not remove wax in the finer structure. Horse hair and other finer bristle brushes can accomplish fine structure.


A clothes or steam iron from a thrift shop will work just fine. Many wax manufactures claim that a manufactured waxing iron is the only way to control heat. I have actually found the opposite to be true. Out of curiosity, I used an infrared temperature monitor on three types of leading wax irons and the temp fluctuations, while minuscule, were all over the map. The clothes iron maintained heat within two degrees constant.

There are literally hundreds of videos and articles out there that show various techniques for waxing. The process is somewhat the same; prep, drip wax, spread wax, scrape, structure, and tune. I will very briefly touch on basics and emphasize key points that are often not mentioned.

swix wire brush
Step 1

Prep the base surface with a brass or copper bristle brush (not steel). This opens the pores and gets rid of impurities that may have worked their way in to the base. Remember you should wear a respirator when brushing or hot-scraping a wax that contains fluoros.

Citrus cleaner
Step 2

Clean the base thoroughly with a citrus cleaner and wipe all the impurities from the sintered base using a Scoth-Brite pad — gently, especially residual traces of glue from skins which will always work their way in to the pores. Keeping your base in good shape will prolong the life of the skin glue as well. Citrus cleaners found at auto parts stores will do the trick. I use a 20x concentrate and mix my own in a spray bottle. Dawn dish soap is another choice – diluted with warm water. Don’t fall for the marketing gimmick of toxic base cleaners.

remove micro-hairs
Step 3

Inspect for micro-hairs from the polyethylene base that will cause friction. If present, remove them gently with a steel scraper or Scoth-Brite pad. Follow over the area with an Omni pad.


Warm the iron to the lowest setting that will allow the wax to melt and drip. DO NOT allow the wax to smoke or breath fumes. Organofluorine breakdown products in heated wax are extremely toxic (see ‘Environmental and health concerns’ & ‘Caveat emptor’ sections below).

Drip wax from iron on to base surface
Step 4

Drip the wax on to the base surface. With the iron at a low setting move the melted wax across the surface.

spread wax across base with iron
Step 5

Spread the wax on to the base surface with the coolest setting possible while still maintain wax spread. Never allow the iron to touch the base without wax, this will damage the pores (e.g. heat sealing). If you are using a higher temperature wax you should use fiberlene between the base and iron.

allow wax to cool overnight
Step 6

Allow the wax to cool overnight at room temperature. Many people make the mistake of scraping soon after they wax. This pulls wax from the pores and is the number one culprit in base burn discussed in more detail in the previous section.

Step 7

Scrape the wax with a plastic scraper from tip to tail in one motion. You want continuos straight lines. Do not use a metal scraper for removing wax. Keep your plastic scrapers sharp using a metal one. Lock the plastic scraper into a vise and starting at the far side, drag the metal scraper towards yourself in a relatively quick but controlled manner a few times. Good as new!

Nylon brush wax structure
Step 8

Using a nylon structure brush, go straight from tip to tail to add or enhance structure. For fine structure you can follow this in succession with a fine horse hair structure brush.

Tune edges
Step 9

Last step if necessary; debur and tune edges. Since this splitboard has a rocker, I detune a bit on the rocker areas with a demon stone.


Wax structure

A perfect mid-winter base and wax structure
A perfect mid-winter base and wax structure

In the previous section I covered structure theory, and the different types of structure for conditions. The same principle holds true for waxing; the smaller the snow crystals, the finer the structure required and visa versa. Likewise, in cold, dry snow such as the Rocky Mountain region (20°F and below), the structure should be fine and shaped to hold minimal water for the conditions. On cold crystalline snow (10°F and below), the base should be as smooth as possible so the points of friction are minimized. On amorphous, wet snow (20°F and above), a coarser structured snowboard base is better to minimize the points of friction. The idea is to move the free moisture away from the base and reduce suction. It is important to mention that a course structure is somewhat permanent.

Environmental and health concerns

I realize this isn’t going to be a popular topic to many out there, especially to those in the competition and manufacturing sectors. However, this is a broad message to all users, both recreational and professional. The common bond we all share is the passion for the mountains. With that said, we should all be stewards to the environment and do our part to protect what we are passionate about. The concerns about fluorinated waxes stem from the production process. There are many wax companies developing more eco-friendly waxes that are safer for the environment. Despite that, many of the wax companies basically deny any plausibility, the facts are there, and these companies are doing nothing more than protecting themselves and their profits. There is big money in competitive ski and snowboard races, and often these competitions are won by fractions of a second. You can quickly put the dots together and follow the underlying motives of these companies. Manufacturing fluoro products requires some nasty chemicals, including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). These chemicals have ended up in the water streams near Dupont and 3M production facilities and have affected thousands of people. Ski and snowboard wax is a minuscule part of the bigger picture of fluorochemical processing. See the Environmental Protection Agency’s lawsuits against fluorochemical manufacturers in the US.[10]U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, (2013). Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Fluorinated Telomers, Retrieved November 29, 2014, from

Caveat emptor

The exact contents of the waxes are seldom revealed by the manufacturers, but it has been shown that many of the glide waxes available on the market contain semifluorinated n-alkanes (SFAs) and perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs). Application of glide waxes to snowboards, downhill and cross country skis is performed in a similar way using an iron to melt the wax onto the base of the ski.[12]Kärrman A, Ericson I, van Bavel B, Darnerud PO, Aune M, Glynn A, Lignell S, Lindström G. (2007); Environ Health Perspect. 115(2): 226-230 This procedure causes a lot of smoke and fumes containing a blend of gaseous organofluorine compounds which are easily inhaled by the worker.[13]Yeung LWY, Miyake Y, Taniyasu S, Wang Y, Yu HX, So MK, Jiang GB, Wu YN, Li JG, Giesy JP, Yamashita N, Lam PKS. (2008); Environ Sci Technol. 42(21): 8140-8145[14]Young CJ, Furdui VI, Franklin J, Koerner RM, Muir DCG, Mabury SA. (2007); Environ Sci Technol.41(10): 3455-3461 Inhalation of organofluorine breakdown products are known to induce pulmonary edema and polymer fume fever, informally called Teflon Flu.[15]Loewen M, Wania F, Wang FY, Tomy G. (2008); Environ Sci Technol. 42(7): 2374-2379[16]Dinglasan MJA, Ye Y, Edwards EA, Mabury SA. (2004); Environ Sci Technol. 38(10): 2857-2865 Reduced fecundity have been observed with levels of PFOA found in the general population as well as developmental toxicity,[17]Russell MH, Berti WR, Szostek B, Buck RC. (2008); Environmental Science & Technology, 42(3):800-807 and hormonal disruption.[18]Martin JW, Chan K, Mabury SA, O’Brien PJ. (2009); Chemico-Biological Interactions. 177(3): 196-203 In addition, fluorotelomer alcohols demonstrate estrogen-like properties.[19]Hart K, Kannan K, Isobe T, Takahashi S, Yamada TK, Miyazaki N, Tanabe S. (2008); Environ Sci Technol. 42(19): 7132-7137 PFOA has been detected in industrial waste, stain resistant carpets, carpet cleaning liquids, house dust, microwave popcorn bags, water, food, some cookware and PTFE such as Teflon®.

Further reading

The bottom line is this, most backcountry enthusiasts are not concerned with fractions of a second in speed. Recreational users in general do not need this advantage. There are plenty of waxes out there such as Purl ( that are completely green and safe to apply and use. Furthermore they have less of an impact on the environment.  I have provided more than 150 additional citations for further reading (cited below in References). You simply cannot deny the science and studies that are out there. I would urge other backcountry and recreational users to keep in mind the industry practices you are supporting by purchasing products.


This concludes the three-part series. In Part One I covered the forces effecting movement on the snow. In Part Two I touched on base construction, and base structure theory. The physics of this series can be complex, but it’s actually easy to understand. With a basic understanding of the dynamics involved you can prepare your equipment and have a better understanding of how conditions impact riding.

Part 1: Forces Effecting Movement
on the Snow

Part 1: Forces Effecting Movement on the Snow

Part 2: Snowboard Base Construction

Part 2: Snowboard Base Construction

FacebookTwitterGoogle+PinterestShare this

References   [ + ]

1. Kuzmin, Leonid (2010). Interfacial kinetic ski friction (Doctoral). Mid Sweden University, Retrieved December 2, 2014 from
2. Masia, Seth. (2012) History of Ski Wax, Retrieved November 29, 2014, from
3. Kuzmin, Leonid (2006). Investigation of the most essential factors influencing ski glide (Licentiate). Luleå University of Technology
4. Moldestad, D. A., (1999). Some aspects of ski base sliding and ski base structure, PhD thesis, Norwegian University of Science and Technology.
5. Lehtovaara, A., (1989). (or dynamic) – Occurs when two objects are moving relative to each other and rub together." class="glossaryLink " target="_blank">Kinetic friction between ski and snow, PhD thesis, Tampere University of Technology, Finnland.
6. Coupe, Richard (2008). An Investigation Comparing the Efficacy of Different Lubricants for Skis on Artificial Snow. The ACES Journal of Undergraduate Research, Sheffield Hallam University.
7. Giesbrecht, Jan Lukas (2010). Polymers on snow: Towards skiing faster (Doctoral). Swiss Federal Institute of Technology
8. Hertel, Terry (1992) US Patent US 5114482A
9. Pihkala, P.; Spring, E., (1986). Determination of the contact area between ski and snow using a simple thermal conductivity meter, Report Series in Geophysics, University of Helsinki: Helsinki.
10. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, (2013). Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Fluorinated Telomers, Retrieved November 29, 2014, from
11. Nilsson H, Kärrman A, Westberg H, Rotander A, van Bavel B, & Lindström G. (2010). A time trend study of significantly elevated perfluorocarboxylate levels in humans after using fluorinated ski wax. Environ Sci Technol. 2010 Mar 15;44(6):2150-5.
12. Kärrman A, Ericson I, van Bavel B, Darnerud PO, Aune M, Glynn A, Lignell S, Lindström G. (2007); Environ Health Perspect. 115(2): 226-230
13. Yeung LWY, Miyake Y, Taniyasu S, Wang Y, Yu HX, So MK, Jiang GB, Wu YN, Li JG, Giesy JP, Yamashita N, Lam PKS. (2008); Environ Sci Technol. 42(21): 8140-8145
14. Young CJ, Furdui VI, Franklin J, Koerner RM, Muir DCG, Mabury SA. (2007); Environ Sci Technol.41(10): 3455-3461
15. Loewen M, Wania F, Wang FY, Tomy G. (2008); Environ Sci Technol. 42(7): 2374-2379
16. Dinglasan MJA, Ye Y, Edwards EA, Mabury SA. (2004); Environ Sci Technol. 38(10): 2857-2865
17. Russell MH, Berti WR, Szostek B, Buck RC. (2008); Environmental Science & Technology, 42(3):800-807
18. Martin JW, Chan K, Mabury SA, O’Brien PJ. (2009); Chemico-Biological Interactions. 177(3): 196-203
19. Hart K, Kannan K, Isobe T, Takahashi S, Yamada TK, Miyazaki N, Tanabe S. (2008); Environ Sci Technol. 42(19): 7132-7137
20. Lau C, Butenhoff JL, Rogers JM (July 2004). The developmental toxicity of perfluoroalkyl acids and their derivatives. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 198 (2): 231–41.
21. Nicole, W. (2013). PFOA and Cancer in a Highly Exposed Community: New Findings from the C8 Science Panel. Environmental Health Perspectives 121 (11–12): A340.
22. Hansen KJ, Clemen LA, Ellefson ME, Johnson HO. (2001); Environ Sci Technol. 35(4): 766-770
23. Chiappero MS, Argüello GA, Hurley MD, Wallington TJ. (2008); Chemical Physics Letters. 461(4-6):198-202
24. Conte L, Zaggia A, Sassi A, Seraglia R. (2007); J Fluorine Chem. 128(5): 493-499
25. Hämeri K, Aalto P, Kulmala M, Sammaljarvi E, Spring E, Pihkala P. (1996); Journal of Aerosol Science. 27(2): 339-344
26. Liesivuori J, Kiviranta H, Laitinen J, Hesso A, Hameila M, Tornaeus J, Pfaffli P, Savolainen H. (1994); Ann Occup Hyg. 38(6): 931-937
27. Patel MM, Miller MA, Chomchai S. (2006); Am J Emerg Med. 24(7): 880-881
28. Lemonick MD, McLaughlin L. (2006); Time. 167(24): 60-61
29. Fei CY, McLaughlin JK, Lipworth L, Olsen J. (2009); Human Reproduction. 24(5): 1200-1205
30. Fei CY, McLaughlin JK, Tarone RE, Olsen J. (2007); Environ Health Perspect. 115(11): 1677-1682
31. Apelberg BJ, Goldman LR, Calafat AM, Herbstman JB, Kuklenyik Z, Heidler J, Needham LL, Halden RU, Witter FR. (2007); Environmental Science & Technology. 41(11): 3891-3897
32. Astrup JA, Leffers H. (2008); International Journal of Andrology. 31(2): 161-169
33. Maras M, Vanparys C, Muylle F, Robbens J, Berger U, Barber JL, Blust R, De Coen W. (2006); Environ Health Perspect. 114(1): 100-105
34. Kärrman A, van Bavel B, Jarnberg U, Hardell L, Lindström G. (2006); Chemosphere. 64(9): 1582-1591
35. Nilsson H, Karrman A, Westberg H, Rotander A, van Bavel B, Lindstrom G. (2010); Environ Sci Technol. 44(6): 2150-2155
36. Gannon S, Johnson T, Serex T, Buck R. Adsorption, Distribution, And Excretion Of [Carbonyl-14C]-Perfluorohexanoic Acid In Rats And Mice In: Proceedings of the Society of Toxicology (SOT) Annual Meeting 2009, Baltimore, MD.
37. Record of Perfluorooctanoic acid in the GESTIS Substance Database from the IFA, accessed on 5 November 2008
38. Prevedouros K, Cousins IT, Buck RC, Korzeniowski SH (December 2006). “Sources, fate and transport of perfluorocarboxylates”. Environ. Sci. Technol. 40 (1): 32–44.
39. Goss KU (July 2008). “The pKa values of PFOA and other highly fluorinated carboxylic acids”.Environ. Sci. Technol. 42 (2): 456–458.
40. Cheng J, Psillakis E, Hoffmann MR, Colussi AJ (July 2009). “Acid dissociation versus molecular association of perfluoroalkyl oxoacids: Environmental implications”. J. Phys. Chem. A 113 (29): 8152–8156.
41. Rayne S, Forest K (June 2010). “Theoretical studies on the pKa values of perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids”. J. Mol. Struct. (Theochem) 949 (1–3): 60–69.10.1016/j.theochem.2010.03.003.
42. Nicole, W. (2013). “PFOA and Cancer in a Highly Exposed Community: New Findings from the C8 Science Panel”. Environmental Health Perspectives 121 (11–12): A340.
43. Emmett EA, Shofer FS, Zhang H, Freeman D, Desai C, Shaw LM (August 2006).”Community exposure to perfluorooctanoate: relationships between serum concentrations and exposure sources”. J. Occup. Environ. Med. 48 (8): 759-70.
44. Clapp, Richard; Polly Hoppin; Jyotsna Jagai; Sara Donahue. “Case Studies in Science Policy: Perfluorooctanoic Acid”. Project on Scientific Knowledge and Public Policy (SKAPP). Retrieved 2008-12-19.
45. Kennedy GL, Butenhoff JL, Olsen GW, et al. (2004). “The toxicology of perfluorooctanoate”.Crit. Rev. Toxicol. 34 (4): 351–84.
46. Giesy JP, Kannan K (April 2002). “Perfluorochemical surfactants in the environment”. Environ. Sci. Technol. 36 (7): 146A–152A.
47. Lau C, Butenhoff JL, Rogers JM (July 2004). “The developmental toxicity of perfluoroalkyl acids and their derivatives”. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 198 (2): 231–41.
48. Ullah, Aziz (October 2006). “The Fluorochemical Dilemma: What the PFOS/PFOA fuss is all about” (PDF). Cleaning & Restoration. Retrieved 2008-09-24.
49. Lee, Jennifer 8. (15 April 2003). “E.P.A. Orders Companies to Examine Effects of Chemicals”.The New York Times. Retrieved 15 May 2009.
50. “3M United States: PFOS PFOA: What is 3M Doing?”. 3M Company. Retrieved 2009-01-05.
51. Weber, Joseph (5 June 2000). “3M’s Big Cleanup – Why it decided to pull the plug on its best-selling stain repellent”. Business Week (New York: McGraw-Hill) (3684): 96.
52. Savu, P (1994). “Fluorinated Higher Carboxylic Acids”. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Terminology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
53. Goeden, Helen (June 2008). “Issues and Needs for PFAA Exposure and Health Research: A State Perspective” (PDF). PFAA Days II. Minnesota Department of Health. U.S. EPA – Research Triangle Park. Retrieved 2008-12-02.
54. Lehmler, HJ (March 2005). “Synthesis of environmentally relevant fluorinated surfactants—a review”. Chemosphere 58 (11): 1471–96. 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2004.11.078.
55. Ylinen M, Hanhijärvi H, Peura P, Rämö O (November 1985). “Quantitative gas chromatographic determination of perfluorooctanoic acid as the benzyl ester in plasma and urine”. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 14 (6): 713–7.
56. “PFOA in Norway TA-2354/2007”. Norwegian Pollution Control Authority. 2007. p. 6. Retrieved 6 April 2009.
57. “Information on PFOA”. DuPont. Retrieved 23 May 2009.
58. Siegle, Lucy (11 October 2009). “Do environmentally friendly outdoor jackets exist?”The Observer (London). Retrieved 25 October 2009.
59. Kudo N, Kawashima Y (May 2003). “Toxicity and toxicokinetics of perfluorooctanoic acid in humans and animals”. J. Toxicol. Sci. 28 (2): 49–57.
60. Kudo N, Suzuki-Nakajima E, Mitsumoto A, Kawashima Y (September 2006). “Responses of the liver to perfluorinated fatty acids with different carbon chain length in male and female mice:in relation to induction of hepatomegaly, peroxisomal beta-oxidation and microsomal 1-acylglycerophosphocholine acyltransferase”. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 29 (9): 1952–7.
61. Gordon SC (September 2010). “Toxicological evaluation of ammonium 4,8-dioxa-3H-perfluorononanoate, a new emulsifier to replace ammonium perfluorooctanoate in fluoropolymer manufacturing”. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 59 (1): 64–80.
62. Sandy, Martha. “Petition for Expedited CIC Consideration of Perfluorooctanic Acid (PFOA)”. The State of California, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, Cancer Toxicology and Epidemiology Section, Reproductive and Cancer Hazard Assessment Branch. Retrieved2008-09-27.
63. C, Anitole K, Hodes C, Lai D, Pfahles-Hutchens A, Seed J (October 2007).“Perfluoroalkyl acids: a review of monitoring and toxicological findings”Toxicol. Sci. 99 (2): 366–94.
64. Michael McCoy (November 2008). “Dyneon Phasing Out Perfluorooctanoate”Chemical & Engineering News 86 (46): 26.
65. Renner, Rebecca (June 2003). “Concerns over common perfluorinated surfactant”.Environ. Sci. Technol. 37 (11): 201A–2A.
66. Siegemund, W. Schwertfeger, A. Feiring, B. Smart, F. Behr, H. Vogel, B. McKusick (2005). “Fluorine Compounds, Organic”. Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH.
67. USEPA (7 March 2006). “Premanufacture Notification Exemption for Polymers; Amendment of Polymer Exemption Rule to Exclude Certain Perfluorinated Polymers; Proposed Rule” (PDF).Federal Register 71 (44): 11490.
68. Salager, Jean-Louis (2002). “FIRP Booklet # 300-A: Surfactants-Types and Uses”. Universidad de los Andes Laboratory of Formulation, Interfaces Rheology, and Processes. p. 44. Retrieved 2008-09-07.
69. Guo Z, Liu X, Krebs KA (March 2009). “Perfluorocarboxylic Acid Content in 116 Articles of Commerce” (PDF). USEPA. p. 40.
70. Lemal DM (January 2004). “Perspective on fluorocarbon chemistry”. J. Org. Chem. 69 (1): 1–11.
71. Renner R (December 2008). “EPA finds record PFOS, PFOA levels in Alabama grazing fields”. Environ. Sci. Technol. 43 (5): 1245–6.
72. Cheng J, Psillakis E, Hoffmann MR, Colussi AJ (2009). “Acid Dissociation versus Molecular Association of Perfluoroalkyl Oxoacids: Environmental Implications”. J. Phys. Chem. A 113 (29): 8152–6.
73. Cheng X, Klaassen CD (November 2008). “Perfluorocarboxylic acids induce cytochrome P450 enzymes in mouse liver through activation of PPAR-alpha and CAR transcription factors”.Toxicol. Sci. 106 (1): 29–36.
74. Conder JM, Hoke RA, De Wolf W, Russell MH, Buck RC (February 2008). “Are PFCAs bioaccumulative? A critical review and comparison with regulatory criteria and persistent lipophilic compounds”. Environ. Sci. Technol. 42 (4): 995–1003.
75. Bartell SM, Calafat AM, Lyu C, Kato K, Ryan PB, Steenland K (February 2010). “Rate of decline in serum PFOA concentrations after granular activated carbon filtration at two public water systems in Ohio and West Virginia”. Environ. Health Perspect. 118 (2): 222–8.
76. Steenland K, Fletcher T, Savitz DA (2010). “Epidemiologic Evidence on the Health Effects of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA)”. Environ. Health Perspect. 118 (8): 1100–8.
77. Brede E, Wilhelm M, Göen T, Müller J, Rauchfuss K, Kraft M, Hölzer J (June 2010). “Two-year follow-up biomonitoring pilot study of residents’ and controls’ PFC plasma levels after PFOA reduction in public water system in Arnsberg, Germany”. Int J Hyg Environ Health 213 (3): 217–23.
78. Melzer D, Rice N, Depledge MH, Henley WE, Galloway TS (2010).”Association Between Serum Perfluoroctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Thyroid Disease in the NHANES Study”. Environ. Health Perspect. 118 (5): 686–92. 20089479.
79. Betts KS (May 2007). “Perfluoroalkyl acids: what is the evidence telling us?”.Environ. Health Perspect. 115 (5): A250–6.
80. Yamashita N, Kannan K, Taniyasu S, Horii Y, Petrick G, Gamo T (2005). “A global survey of perfluorinated acids in oceans”. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 51 (8–12): 658–68.
81. Renner, Rebecca (June 2008). “Aerosols complicate PFOA picture”. Environ. Sci. Technol. 42(11): 3908.
82. Houde M, Martin JW, Letcher RJ, Solomon KR, Muir DC (June 2006). “Biological monitoring of polyfluoroalkyl substances: A review”. Environ. Sci. Technol. 40 (11): 3463–73.
83. Butt CM, Berger U, Bossi R, Tomy GT (May 2010). “Levels and trends of poly- and perfluorinated compounds in the arctic environment”. Sci Total Environ 408 (15): 2936–65.
84. Vestergren R, Cousins IT (August 2009). “Tracking the pathways of human exposure to perfluorocarboxylates”. Environ. Sci. Technol. 43 (15): 5565–75.
85. Calafat AM, Needham LL, Kuklenyik Z, Reidy JA, Tully JS, Aguilar-Villalobos M, Naeher LP (April 2006). “Perfluorinated chemicals in selected residents of the American continent”.Chemosphere 63 (3): 490–6.
86. Harada KH, Yang HR, Moon CS, Hung NN, Hitomi T, Inoue K, Niisoe T, Watanabe T, Kamiyama S, Takenaka K, Kim MY, Watanabe K, Takasuga T, Koizumi A (April 2010). “Levels of perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoic acid in female serum samples from Japan in 2008, Korea in 1994–2008 and Vietnam in 2007–2008”. Chemosphere 79 (3): 314–9.
87. Hemat H, Wilhelm M, Völkel W, Mosch C, Fromme H, Wittsiepe J (July 2010). “Low serum levels of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) in children and adults from Afghanistan”. Sci. Total Environ. 408 (16): 3493–5.
88. Calafat AM, Wong LY, Kuklenyik Z, Reidy JA, Needham LL (November 2007).”Polyfluoroalkyl chemicals in the U.S. population: data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003–2004 and comparisons with NHANES 1999–2000″.Environ. Health Perspect. 115 (11): 1596–602.
89. Renner, Rebecca (2008). “PFOS phaseout pays off”. Environ. Sci. Technol. 42 (13): 4618.
90. Fuchs, Erin and Pam Sohn (10 February 2008). “Study finds high levels of stain-resistance ingredient in Conasauga River”. Chattanooga Times Free Press. Retrieved 4 October 2008.
91. Clara M, Scheffknecht C, Scharf S, Weiss S, Gans O (2008). “Emissions of perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFAS) from point sources—identification of relevant branches”. Water Sci. Technol. 58 (1): 59–66.
92. Lin AY, Panchangam SC, Lo CC (April 2009). “The impact of semiconductor, electronics and optoelectronic industries on downstream perfluorinated chemical contamination in Taiwanese rivers”. Environ. Pollut. 157 (4): 1365–72.
93. “Substance flow analysis for Switzerland: Perfluorinated surfactants perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)”. The Swiss Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN). 2009. Retrieved 4 November 2010.
94. Renner, Rebecca (2007). “PFOA in people”. Environ. Sci. Technol. 41 (13): 4497–500.
95. D’eon JC, Hurley MD, Wallington TJ, Mabury SA (March 2006). “Atmospheric chemistry of N-methyl perfluorobutane sulfonamidoethanol, C4F9SO2N(CH3)CH2CH2OH: kinetics and mechanism of reaction with OH”. Environ. Sci. Technol. 40 (6): 1862–8.
96. Ellis DA, Mabury SA, Martin JW, Muir DC (July 2001). “Thermolysis of fluoropolymers as a potential source of halogenated organic acids in the environment”. Nature 412 (6844): 321–4.
97. Ellis DA, Martin JW, Muir DC, Mabury SA (June 2003). “The use of 19F NMR and mass spectrometry for the elucidation of novel fluorinated acids and atmospheric fluoroacid precursors evolved in the thermolysis of fluoropolymers”. Analyst 128 (6): 756–64.
98. “Lists of PFOS, PFAS, PFOA, PFCA, related compounds and chemicals that may degrade to PFCA” (PDF). Environment Directorate-Joint Meeting of the Chemicals Committee and the Working Party on Chemicals, Pesticides, and Biotechnology. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. 2007-08-21. Retrieved 2008-09-19.
99. Schultz MM, Higgins CP, Huset CA, Luthy RG, Barofsky DF, Field JA (December 2006).”Fluorochemical mass flows in a municipal wastewater treatment facility”. Environ. Sci. Technol.40 (23): 7350–7.
100. Renner, Rebecca (2008). “Do perfluoropolymers biodegrade into PFOA?”. Environ. Sci. Technol. 42 (3): 648–50.
101. Schecter A, Colacino J, Haffner D, Patel K, Opel M, Päpke O, Birnbaum L (2010).”Perfluorinated Compounds, Polychlorinated Biphenyl, and Organochlorine Pesticide Contamination in Composite Food Samples from Dallas, Texas”. Environ. Health Perspect. 118(6): 796–802.
102. Langer V, Dreyer A, Ebinghaus R (November 2010). “Polyfluorinated compounds in residential and nonresidential indoor air”. Environ. Sci. Technol. 44 (21): 8075–81.
103. D’eon JC, Mabury SA (2010). “Exploring Indirect Sources of Human Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Carboxylates (PFCAs): Evaluating Uptake, Elimination and Biotransformation of Polyfluoroalkyl Phosphate Esters (PAPs) in the Rat”. Environ Health Perspect 119 (3): 344–350.
104. Post, Gloria; Stern, Alan; Murphy, Eileen. “Guidance for PFOA in Drinking Water at Pennsgrove Water Supply Company” (PDF). State of New Jersey, Department of Environmental Protection, Division of Science, Research and Technology. p. 2. Retrieved 7 June 2009.
105. Johnson, Mark. “Evaluation of Methodologies for Deriving Health-Based Values for PFCs in Drinking Water” (PDF). Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. pp. 20, 37. Retrieved 7 June 2009.
106. “Information on PFOA”. DuPont. Retrieved 14 February 2009.
107. Begley TH, White K, Honigfort P, Twaroski ML, Neches R, Walker RA (October 2005). “Perfluorochemicals: potential sources of and migration from food packaging”. Food Addit. Contam. 22 (10): 1023–31.
108. Weise, Elizabeth (16 November 2005). “Engineer: DuPont hid facts about paper coating”.USA Today. Retrieved 19 September 2008.
109. “PFOA in Norway TA-2354/2007”. Norwegian Pollution Control Authority. 2007. p. 18. Retrieved 29 August 2009.
110. Trudel D, Horowitz L, Wormuth M, Scheringer M, Cousins IT, Hungerbühler K (April 2008). “Estimating consumer exposure to PFOS and PFOA”. Risk Anal. 28 (2): 251–69.
111. Ward, Jr., Ken (17 January 2009). “EPA’s C8 advisory does not address long-term risks”. The Charleston Gazette. Retrieved 8 February 2009.
112. Finn, Scott (15 January 2009). “Bush EPA sets so-called safe level of C8 in drinking water”. West Virginia Public Broadcasting. Retrieved 18 January 2009.
113. “Perfluorochemical Contamination of Biosolids Near Decatur, Alabama”. United States Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved 12 June 2010.
114. Eilperin, Juliet (17 January 2009). “Level Set for Chemical In Nonstick Products”The Washington Post. Retrieved 8 February 2009.
115. “Chemical Used to Make Non-Stick Coatings Harmful to Health”Environment News Service. 13 May 2008. Retrieved 19 October 2008.
116. Cheryl Hogue (September 2008). “California Chemical Legislation: State’s new laws on chemicals could presage federal action”Chemical & Engineering News 86 (36): 9.
117. Stokstad E (January 2006). “Environmental research—DuPont settlement to fund test of potential toxics”. Science 311 (5757): 26–7.
118. Betts K (November 2007). “PFOS and PFOA in humans: new study links prenatal exposure to lower birth The force created by gravity acting on a mass." class="glossaryLink " target="_blank">weight”. Environ. Health Perspect. 115 (11): A550. PMC
119. Hood E (August 2008). “Alternative Mechanism for PFOA?: Trout Studies Shed Light on Liver Effects”. Environ. Health Perspect. 116 (8): A351. PMC
120. Upham BL, Park JS, Babica P, Sovadinova I, Rummel AM, Trosko JE, Hirose A, Hasegawa R, Kanno J, Sai K (April 2009). “Structure-activity-dependent regulation of cell communication by perfluorinated fatty acids using in vivo and in vitro model systems”. Environ. Health Perspect.117 (4): 545–51.
121. “Assessment of PFOA in the drinking water of the German Hochsauerlandkreis” (PDF). Drinking Water Commission (Trinkwasserkommission) of the German Ministry of Health at the Federal Environment Agency. pp. 2–3. Retrieved 12 June 2009.
122. Roos PH, Angerer J, Dieter H, Wilhelm M, Wölfle D, Hengstler JG (January 2008). “Perfluorinated compounds (PFC) hit the headlines: meeting report on a satellite symposium of the annual meeting of the German Society of Toxicology”. Arch. Toxicol. 82 (1): 57–9.
123. Olsen GW, Mair DC, Church TR, et al. (July 2008). “Decline in perfluorooctanesulfonate and other polyfluoroalkyl chemicals in American Red Cross adult blood donors, 2000–2006”. Environ. Sci. Technol. 42 (13): 4989–95.
124. Olsen GW, Burris JM, Burlew MM, Mandel JH (November 2000). “Plasma cholecystokinin and hepatic enzymes, cholesterol and lipoproteins in ammonium perfluorooctanoate production workers”. Drug Chem Toxicol 23 (4): 603–20.
125. Steenland, Kyle; Susan Woskie (Nov 15, 2012). “Cohort Mortality Study of Workers Exposed to Perfluorooctanoic Acid”. American Journal of Epidemiology 176 (10): 909–17.
126. Fei C, McLaughlin JK, Lipworth L, Olsen J (January 2009). “Maternal levels of perfluorinated chemicals and subfecundity”Hum. Reprod. 24 (5): 1–6.
127. Joensen UN, Bossi R, Leffers H, Jensen AA, Skakkebaek NE, Jørgensen N (June 2009). “Do perfluoroalkyl compounds impair human semen quality?”. Environ. Health Perspect. 117 (6): 923–7.
128. Lin CY, Lin LY, Chiang CK, Wang WJ, Su YN, Hung KY, Chen PC (December 2009). “Investigation of the Associations Between Low-Dose Serum Perfluorinated Chemicals and Liver Enzymes in US Adults”. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 105 (6): 1354–63.
129. Nelson JW, Hatch EE, Webster, TF (2009). “Exposure to Polyfluoroalkyl Chemicals and Cholesterol, Body Weight, and Insulin Resistance in the General U.S. Population” (PDF).Environ. Health Perspect. 118 (2): 197–202.
130. Hoffman K, Webster TF, Weisskopf MG, Weinberg J, Vieira VM (2010). “Exposure to Polyfluoroalkyl Chemicals and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in U.S. Children Aged 12–15 Years”. Environ. Health Perspect. 118 (12): 1762–7.
131. Ken Ward Jr. “PFOA linked to ADHD and hormone disruption in kids”. Blogs @ The Charleston Gazette. Retrieved 8 November 2009.
132. Pinney, Susan; Gayle C. Windham, Frank M. Biro, Larry H. Kushi, Lusine Yaghjyan, Antonia Calafat, Kayoko Kato, Paul Succop, M. Kathryn Brown, Ann Hernick, Robert Bornschein.“Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and Pubertal Maturation in Young Girls”. Retrieved 8 November2009.
133. “Patterns of age of puberty among children in the Mid-Ohio Valley in relation to Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS)” (PDF). C8 Science Panel. Retrieved 21 October 2010.
134. Fei C, McLaughlin JK, Tarone RE, Olsen J (November 2007). “Perfluorinated chemicals and fetal growth: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort”. Environ. Health Perspect. 115(11): 1677–82.
135. Apelberg BJ, Witter FR, Herbstman JB, Calafat AM, Halden RU, Needham LL, Goldman LR (November 2007). “Cord serum concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in relation to weight and size at birth”. Environ. Health Perspect. 115(11): 1670–6.
136. Andersen CS, Fei C, Gamborg M, Nohr EA, Sørensen TI, Olsen J (October 2010). “Prenatal Exposures to Perfluorinated Chemicals and Anthropometric Measures in Infancy”. Am J Epidemiol172 (11): 1230–7.
137. Washino N, Saijo Y, Sasaki S, Kato S, Ban S, Konishi K, Ito R, Nakata A, Iwasaki Y, Saito K, Nakazawa H, Kishi R (April 2009). “Correlations between prenatal exposure to perfluorinated chemicals and reduced fetal growth”. Environ. Health Perspect. 117 (4): 660–7.
138. Monroy R, Morrison K, Teo K, Atkinson S, Kubwabo C, Stewart B, Foster WG (September 2008). “Serum levels of perfluoroalkyl compounds in human maternal and umbilical cord blood samples”. Environ, Res. 108 (1): 56–62.
139. Nolan LA, Nolan JM, Shofer FS, Rodway NV, Emmett EA (June 2009). “The relationship between birth weight, gestational age and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)-contaminated public drinking water”. Reprod. Toxicol. 27 (3–4): 231–8.
140. Eriksen KT, Sørensen M, McLaughlin JK, Lipworth L, Tjønneland A, Overvad K, Raaschou-Nielsen O (April 2009). “Perfluorooctanoate and perfluorooctanesulfonate plasma levels and risk of cancer in the general Danish population”. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 101 (8): 605–9.
141. Fei C, McLaughlin JK, Lipworth L, Olsen J (November 2010). “Prenatal exposure to PFOA and PFOS and risk of hospitalization for infectious diseases in early childhood”. Environ. Res. 110 (8): 773–7.
142. Fei C, Olsen J (2010). “Prenatal Exposure to Perfluorinated Chemicals and Behavioral or Coordination Problems at Age 7”. Environ. Health Perspect. 119 (4): 573–578.
143. Fei C, McLaughlin JK, Lipworth L, Olsen J (October 2008). “Prenatal exposure to perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and maternally reported developmental milestones in infancy”. Environ. Health Perspect. 116 (10): 1391–5.
144. Steenland K, Tinker S, Frisbee S, Ducatman A, Vaccarino V (November 2009). “Association of perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate with serum lipids among adults living near a chemical plant”. Am. J. Epidemiol. 170 (10): 1268–78.
145. Frisbee SJ, Brooks AP, Maher A, Flensborg P, Arnold S, Fletcher T, Steenland K, Shankar A, Knox SS, Pollard C, Halverson JA, Vieira VM, Jin C, Leyden KM, Ducatman AM (December 2009). “The C8 health project: design, methods, and participants”. Environ. Health Perspect.117 (12): 1873–82.
146.  “Biomonitoring—EPA Needs to Coordinate Its Research Strategy and Clarify Its Authority to Obtain Biomonitoring Data” (PDF). United States Government Accountability Office. April 2009. pp. 19–20. Retrieved 19 June 2009.
147. “Relationship of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) with pregnancy outcome among women with elevated community exposure to PFOA” (PDF). C8 Science Panel. Retrieved 27 June 2009.
148. “C8 Science Panel Website – C8 Study Results – Status Reports”. C8 Science Panel. Retrieved 27 June 2009.
149. Ken Ward, Jr. (28 September 2009). “Federal judge throws out most of C8 suit against DuPont”. The Charleston Gazette.
150. Michael Janofsky (15 December 2005). “DuPont to Pay $16.5 Million for Unreported Risks”.The New York Times. Retrieved 23 November 2009.
151. Goodwin, C.J. “Rhodes, et al. v. E.I. Du Pont De Nemours and Company” United States District Court for the Southern District of West Virginia. Case Number, 6:06-cv-530 (30 September 2008). Retrieved 12 October 2008.
152.  “2010/15 PFOA Stewardship Program; PFOA and Fluorinated Telomers”. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved 19 September 2008.
153. Renner R; Christen, Kris (2006). “Scientists hail PFOA reduction plan”. Environ. Sci. Technol. 40(7): 2083.
154. “SAB Review of EPA’s Draft Risk Assessment of Potential Human Health Effects Associated with PFOA and Its Salts” (PDF). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Science Advisory Board. 2006-05-30. p. 2. Retrieved 2008-09-21.
155. Mid-Atlantic Enforcement (10 May 2007). “Fact Sheet: EPA, DuPont Agree on Measures to Protect Drinking Water Near the DuPont Washington Works”. United States Environmental Protection Agency. Archived from the original on 18 January 2008. Retrieved 11 May 2008.
156. Renner R; Renner, Rebecca; Cooney, Catherine M.; Pelley, Janet; Chatterjee, Rhitu; Lubick, Naomi; Engelhaupt, Erika (May 2007). “New Jersey dives into PFOA water guidance”. Environ. Sci. Technol. 41 (10): 3395–6.
157. Minnesota Department of Health “Health officials issue new health guidelines for PFOA, PFOS” News Release (March 1, 2007).
158. Anke Schaefer; Barbara Booth; Naomi Lubick; Kellyn S. Betts (2006-12-01). “Perfluorinated surfactants contaminate German waters – Mislabeled waste in fertilizer leads to a water scandal”.Environ. Sci. Technol. 40 (23): 7108–14.
159. Skutlarek D, Exner M, Färber H (September 2006). “Perfluorinated surfactants in surface and drinking waters”Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. Int. 13 (5): 299–307.

Post a Reply